Reference Materials

Listed below are reference materials for additional information on Wavelength References and molecular absorption.

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NIST: The National Institute for Standards and Technology publishes a wealth of information on frequency standards:

Other sources for absorption data:

  • HITRAN: a world renowned spectroscopic database located at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
  • PNNL: the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • VPL Molecular Spectroscopic Database:  Contains a handy collection of gases and associated graphs of their absorption spectra – usually from HITRAN and PNNL.

White papers:

Other papers:

  • Accuracy: W. S. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, “Accuracy limits for simple molecular absorption based wavelength references,” Opt. Fiber Measurements, Technical Digest, 15-18 (2004).
  • Acetylene, carbon-12 and -13 isotopes:  K. Nakagawa, M. de Labachelerie, Y. Awaji, and M. Kourogi, “Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5-μm bands of acetylene,”  J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2708-2714 (1996).
  • Acetylene, carbon-12 (included in NIST Spec. Pub. 230-133 listed above): W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, “Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines,”  J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).
  •  HCN, carbon-12 and -13 absorption lines:  H. Sasada and K. Yamada, “Calibration lines of HCN in the 1.5 micron region”, Applied Optics 29, 3535-3547 (1990).
  • HCN, carbon-13 (included in NIST Spec. Pub. 230-137 listed above): W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, “Line centers, pressure shift, and pressure broadening of 1530-1560 nm hydrogen cyanide wavelength calibration lines,”  J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1749-1756 (2005).
  • HF, absorption lines (as referenced in HITRAN): G. Guelachvili, “Absolute wavenumber measurements of 1-0, 2-0, HF and 2-0, H35Cl, H37Cl absorption bands,” Opt. Comm. 19, 150 (1976).
  • HF, pressure shift: Herget et al, “Infrared spectrum of hydrogen fluoride,” J Opt Soc Am, 52 1113-1119 (1962).